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What is asthma & asthma attack ? symptoms & signs of asthma (diagnosis & treatment)

Asthma

if you have shortness of breath and feeling tired fast while doing sport you may suffer of asthma, know symptoms & signs of asthma (diagnosis & treatment)
asthma

    Asthma is a disease that affects bronchi in the trachea, which is the passages that transfer air to and from the lungs.

    There are two types of asthma: the type caused by allergies (pollen allergy) The second type is not yet known why it happens.

    Air transfers naturally into the body through the nose and trachea and then to the bronchi. At the end of the air passages, there are very small air bags called alveoli, it transfers the fresh air (oxygen) to the blood and the alveoli also transfers the carbon dioxide out of the body.

     During normal breathing, the surrounding muscles start to sag to allow the air to pass naturally. But in the case of asthma, or in the case of an attack, three things happens and prevents the air of passing naturally in the airways:

  • Narrowing of the muscles group surrounding of the airways, thus a narrow happens in the passage of air and that kind called state of spasm of the bronchial tubes.
  • Inflation in the walls of the airways.
  • Extra secretions that secreted by the cells on walls of the bronchi.

    The narrow of the airways causes of non-out carbon dioxide of the lungs. As a result, an asthma patient feels that he can not breathe sufficiently.

 

The basic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma symptoms occur when the airways are exposed to a change that we have mentioned previously.

    Asthma attacks occur in spaced intervals in some people, but there are other people feel the symptoms of asthma on a daily basis.

Common symptoms of asthma includes:

  • A constant cough, especially at night.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Wheezing while breath.
  • Tightness, pressure or pains in the chest.

 

    It is not necessary that all asthma patients should feel the same symptoms with the same form. The patient may not feel any of these symptoms, he may feel with different symptoms for different reasons, in addition, the symptoms may differ in every attack for the same individual, it may not be a dangerous attack but also it may be a dangerous one.

    The asthma attack usually occurs simply, the airways allow to the air to pass again after minutes or hours of the occurrence of the attack. As for the severe attacks, it is occurring at much lower rate, but it is the most serious and it requires quick medical assistance.

    The simple cases of asthma also should be treated and taking care of them, so as to avoid more dangerous situations later.

 

What are the initial signs of the asthma attack?

    The initial signs are changes that occur with the beginning of an asthma attack. In normal cases, these symptoms are not that dangerous to make the patient stop his activities.

    If the patient felt the initial alert signs of the asthma attack, you may help to prevent the attack or to prevent it from being severe.

These signs includes:

  • A continuous cough, especially at night.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Feeling very tired while doing sports, in addition to wheezing while breathing, coughing and shortness of breath.
  • Lack or change in the ease of exhalation process.
  • Feeling symptoms of cold – inflammation of the upper respiratory system, allergies (sneezing, runny nose, cough, congestion, enlarged throat, headache). 
  • Insomnia.

 

Who may get asthma?

    Asthma infection is not linked to a specific age or a particular type. Although it may be a genetic disease, but it spreads among a large number of people.

 

The causes of the asthma attack.

    Asthma attack linked to the occurrence of a problem in the airways, but the main reason for the occurrence of this problem is unknown. The airways of asthma patient are extremely sensitive to any external excitability and the occurrence of this excitation cause the attack.

    There are different types of signals that may occur. The reaction of the airways to these signals vary from person to another from time to time.

    Among the most important fundamental factors to control asthma is to find out the causes of the attack and try to avoid them.

General reasons that raise asthma attack:

  • Injuries and infections: colds/viruses / flu and sinusitis.
  • Sports: It is more prevalent in children.
  • Weather: cold air, the temperature difference.
  • Smoking and air pollution.
  • Sensitivity: things that may cause allergic reactions in the lung and includes: vaccines, pets, mold, cockroaches and some foods.
  • Dust.
  • Chemical odors.
  • Show strong emotions: cry, deep laugh, scream and severe anxiety.
  • Some drugs, such as aspirin, Beta Blockers, drugs that treat high blood pressure, migraine, and glaucoma.

 

Asthma diagnosis:

    There are many ways in which doctors used in the diagnosis of asthma. The doctor makes a general test to the patient, to know the symptoms that occur to him and looking at his medical history, then doing some tests to identify the health status of the lung.

  • X-ray on the chest, which is an image of the lungs.
  • Lung efficiency test: a test that measures the amount of air that comes out of the lung. This is done by blowing into a tube placed between the lips, it is measuring the exhaled that comes out of the lung.
  • Another test measures the speed of the air that comes out of the lungs (exhale).
  • There are various other tests such as allergy tests, and blood test.

 

Asthma Treatment.

    The asthma attack can be controlled by avoiding the causes of exciting of the attack, through drugs and follow up the initial symptoms that may portend the occurrence of the asthma attack.

The proper use of drugs to treat asthma is the key to the control of asthma.

 

There are two types of asthma treatments:

  • Bronchodilators: These types of pharmacological treatments relaxes the muscles and ligaments that are pressing on the airways, and thus it facilitates the way for air to enter the lungs easily and improve the process of breathing.

These treatments are also working to expel mucus from the lungs which block the way in front of the air, when the airways extend, mucus comes out easily until the patient can easily take it out of the mouth.

    For rapid and short-term treatments, “Bronchodilators” reduces the symptoms of an asthma attack when they start.

  • Anti-inflammatories: These types of pharmacological treatments reduces inflation of the airways and reduces of formation of mucus. Thus the airways are less sensitive to the excitation factors of the attack.

These drugs are taken on a daily basis for two weeks before the start of controlling in the attacks of asthma.

    These treatments work to reduce the chances of the asthma attack and improve the airflow, reducing the allergic reactions in the airways for some of the factors that may help in the case of attack and work on to reduce the number of occurrences of asthma attacks.

Continuing on this therapy may help to prevent asthma attacks.

    These drugs are often taken through the private asthma device ( respiratory system ), which the drug is inhaled through.

    It is important to check the case of the patient lungs always and measuring its efficiency with the tests that we have mentioned previously. There is no definitive cure for asthma, but the treatment is to control of non-appearance of asthma.

    There are some cases may worsen in adolescence and there are other cases improve dramatically in some periods of puberty, also the attacks may appear again with time.

    However, in most cases, an asthma patient can carry on his life quite naturally if he follows the proper instructions to control of the appearance of the attacks.

    There are several studies that study asthma cases and works to find a way to fully cure them, on the other hand, some researches have shown that cockroaches help of asthma appearance, especially in children in crowded areas.

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